Forensic evidence must be submitted to the Bureau either by hand delivery or via a certified carrier (United States Postal Service Registered Mail, Federal Express, United Parcel Service, etc.) (Evidence Submission Form DFS-K1-1096). Please be aware that there are federal as well as courier specific restrictions regarding the shipment of materials. Specifically, you must be aware that certain items must be listed as "dangerous goods" and thus have special labeling and shipping requirements.
Film, flashcards, video tapes, compact disks, DVD's, etc. may be mailed to the Bureau ). In some instances, limited numbers of images for processing may be submitted via e-mail (there is a limit as to the size of files that can be effectively sent and downloaded). Bureau of Fire and Arson Investigations investigators have access to a shared virtual drive allowing a more convenient submission of images.
Forensic evidence submitted to the Bureau will be returned to all submitters. Evidence will be returned or transferred to a representative of the submitting agency after the samples are analyzed and a report is mailed. All Bureau of Fire and Arson Investigation evidence is transferred to a representative of BFAI for long term storage under their control. Should BFAI evidence be needed for court purposes, either the investigator or a court officer may request the evidence be shipped to them by contacting the BFAI Technician in charge of evidence storage, Lance Tomkins.
For specific requests as to evidence receipt, shipments, or transfers, please contact Bureau Chief Carl Chasteen.
Q: What is an accelerant?
A: An accelerant is technically anything which speeds up a process. In deliberately set fires, most accelerants are ignitable liquids. The most common ignitable liquid used as an accelerant is gasoline. The BFFEA determines the presence and identity of ignitable liquids. Whether or not they were used as "accelerants" is for the investigator or the courts to determine.
Q: How do you find ignitable
A: Fire scene investigators utilize their skills and tools (electronic sniffers and specially trained canines) in the fire scene to find areas with a high probability of the presence of an ignitable liquid. They collect one or more samples and place them in vapor tight containers. These are sent to the laboratory. The technicians and analysts in the Bureau subject the evidence to a technique called "passive headspace concentration" in order to extract trapped ignitable liquid molecules. After being extracted from the evidence sample, the trapped ignitable liquid molecules are put into a liquid solution. The solution (extract) is then injected into a gas chromatograph with mass spectral detector. This instrument creates an electronic representation of the organic chemicals in the sample mixture. The complexity of this mixture is represented as a "total ion chromatogram" which can then be further subdivided into specific ion fragment profiles and mass spectra to determine the presence or absence of characteristics specific to ignitable liquids. The laboratory reports ignitable liquids using the classifications recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in their standard test method E1618. The table Ignitable Liquid Classifications describes the various classifications and provides examples of the classes. The following table shows the identity of ignitable liquids determined by BFFEA since 1992:
|Findings 1992 to 1993||
|No ignitable liquid/Negative||
|Gasoline & Gasoline Mixtures||
|Petroleum Distillates & Petroleum Distillate Mixtures||
|Normal Alkane Products||
Q: What if somebody mixes several
ignitable liquids together?
A: Ignitable liquids can be divided into several classes based on the presence or absence of specific chemical compounds. Familiarity with these classes allows the analyst to distinguish between a medium petroleum distillate and deteriorated gasoline. If a mixture were used the analyst should see a mixed pattern and should be able to make a differentiation.
Q: How should evidence from a fire
scene be preserved and packaged?
A: Evidence from fire scenes should be packaged so that the sample is protected from both evaporation of volatile residues or contamination of the residues after they are collected. This is best accomplished by placing the sample in an air-tight container. The most common are clean unused paint cans with a friction lid which is tightly sealed. Glass jars with tight fitting screw-on lids (using a Teflon type liner) may also be used. If glass jars are used, take care that they will not break during transport or shipment. Some brands of nylon "arson" plastic evidence bags are on the market. Some studies show them to be very useful so long as they are sealed properly. BFFEA strongly suggests limiting their use to items with odd shapes or bulk that will not fit into a gallon can. If the debris placed inside them has sharp points or edges, the plastic bag could be punctured. Plastic bags must be completely heat sealed. Regardless of the type of container used, place the debris in it without drying as this will reduce the presence of the ignitable liquid traces. The container should never be filled more than fifty (50%) to seventy-five (75%) percent full, as the laboratory needs an adequate vapor space above the debris for testing. Please see the link to "Guidelines for Submission" on the Bureau Main Page. Please note that unlike other State of Florida Crime Laboratories, BFFEA has a rule under the Florida Administrative Code that describes the requiremtns for submitting evidence to the Bureau as well as the requirements for the return of the evidence (FAC 69A-63.001).
Q: What are the key exceptions or
differences if I have evidence from explosions or clandestine labs?
A: The Bureau will not accept any intact explosive devises. They must be rendered "safe", or disassembled before submission. For items from a clandestine laboratory, if there is a suspicion that any drugs are present, the item must be submitted to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) as the Bureau will not accept any drugs for analysis. Items other than fire debris or organic based solvents should not be directly placed into a metal container as the item may chemically react with the metal. Instead, glass or plastic containers should be used. Be careful to observe if there is a chemical reaction or gas evolution inside the container as this may cause a build-up of pressure in the container to the point where it would burst. Additionally, these types of evidence may require larger sampling amounts to ensure an adequate variety of tests. Please call the Bureau if in doubt.
Q: What can I (the investigator) do
to make sure the best sample is sent to the lab?
A: First, take care in selecting the sample to be tested. It is best to take a sample of fire debris from the area of origin between the center and the edge of a pattern suspected of containing an ignitable liquid. Second, send the sample to the laboratory as soon as possible. Deterioration of ignitable liquids occurs whenever they are not sealed in air-tight containers. Additionally, certain microbes have been known to "eat" components of ignitable liquids. If the concentration of ignitable liquid is low and the presence of microbes high (as in soil samples), a delay in sending the sample may cause enough of a change in an ignitable liquid so that the analyst cannot make a clear determination. Third, if at all possible, send in a "comparison" sample. This would be a sample (preferably un-burned) of the same type of material as in the debris to be tested. For example, if the sample from the point of origin is burned carpet and padding, a sample of the same type of carpet and padding from a protected area (under a bookcase or planter) would be a good "comparison sample." The laboratory will prepare the "comparison" sample under controlled conditions so that the potential interferences can be seen. Comparison samples are also any absorbents used to collect a sample. A paper towel, gauze pad, or hydrophobic pad used to absorb a liquid should be tested to determine it was contaminated. This test is done by submitting an unused portion of the absorbent material as a separate comparison sample. Comparison samples of any absorbents used to collect a sample should be taken at a different location as ignitable liquid vapors may be absorbed from the air near the scene.
Q: How long will it take to get
A: Ninety-five percent of the samples submitted to the Bureau are completed and a report issued in fewer than 8 calendar days. Certain cases, depending on the number of samples and the difficulty in interpreting the results, can be completed in two to three days. These RUSH cases need to meet certain criteria:
1. Fatality - If a fatality occurred
in the incident it should have rush priority.
2. Injured victims or responders. If there are burn victims or first responders who were injured in any phase of the incident (fire suppression, scene investigation, or scene clean-up) it should be marked as rush.
3. Major fires or explosions with significant dollar losses. If a city block, a large business, or historical site should burn or be involved with an explosion it should be marked rush.
4. Suspect in custody/impending court would also be a rush criteria.
Q: Who can submit samples?
A: At this time, the Division of State Fire Marshal's Bureau of Forensic Fire and Explosives Analysis will accept samples from any government/public service agency in Florida. This includes all police or fire investigation agencies for the state, county, or municipality. This, also, includes investigators from State's Attorney Offices or from the Public Defender's Offices. Other State of Florida or federal agencies investigating incidents occurring in Florida may submit evidence, but should contact the Bureau in advance. In the spirit of forensic cooperation, foreign law enforcement or fire investigation agencies may be permitted to submit evidence under specific instances and with prior approval.
Q: What does an analysis of the
evidence cost the submitting agency?
A: At present, the only cost to the submitting agency is the cost of shipping the evidence to the laboratory. The Bureau does not charge for analysis of samples. We do charge reasonable and customary fees for the reproduction of reports, case files, and photographs/images. Foreign submitters must also agree to bear all costs for work performed by the Bureau as well as any costs associated with bringing Bureau personnel to their courts for testimony.
Q: Where can I learn more about the schools that offer degrees
A: The following websites list several of the schools and information although there are additional resources if you search the web:
Q: Who do I contact if I need further information?
A: Call Bureau Chief Carl Chasteen at 850/539-2705 or e-mail Carl Chasteen.
The Census of Publicly Funded Laboratories, 2009 was released by the U. S. Department of Justice in July, 2012. For the year 2009, they report that there were 411 publicly funded forensic laboratories in the United States with only about half offering the Trace Evidence discipline which includes fire debris, explosives, and unknown chemical analyses. In State laboratories, 78% perform fire debris analysis, 30% perform explosives analysis, and 56% perform the analysis of chemical unknowns. The mean staff size of full time personnel in all forensic laboratories was 32 and the median was 17 per lab. Of the 374 laboratories reporting data categorizing the requests they received, there was a total of 42,000 Trace Evidence Analysis requests. This averages to 112.29 trace evidence requests per laboratory.
By comparison, the Bureau of Forensic Fire and Explosives Analysis has 9 full time employees with only 4 analysts assigned to the examination of fire debris, explosives, or unknown chemical trace evidence. The Bureau processed fire debris, explosives, or unknown chemical requests (requiring 9,347 separate chemical analyses) in 2013. Typically cases are assigned for analysis on the day they are submitted. The Bureau has achieved an average turnaround time for sample analysis under seven days with virtually no backlog.
AN ASCLD/LAB-International ACCREDITED TESTING LABORATORY
(SINCE July 20, 2010 in the subdisciplines of Explosives and Analysis of Unknowns)